I discovered a fantastic website devoted to workflow recently, called dpbestflow. It has good summaries of all the steps required for a photographic workflow, and I am slowly working my way through reading some of the relevant sections as I prepare to submit my first assignment this week. It should almost be mentioned in the course notes actually as it is very complete and covers all aspects of workflow.
I have also been doing some book reading:
Evening, M. (2005) Adobe Photoshop CS2 for Photographers. Oxford: Elsevier
Evening, M. (2010) The Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 3 Book. Berkeley: Peachpit
American Society of Media Photographers, (2012) dpbestflow [online] Avaliable from: http://www.dpbestflow.org [Accessed May 2012]
Both of these books, and the website above, have contributed to my workflow learnings, and I feel that I am slowly working towards a workflow plan that I can alter for different shooting situations and setups. I am also improving my backup regime to (hopefully) prevent future data loss (or minimize the impact of any possible data loss).